Being Muslim, we must consult every matter of life according to the Islamic rules and regulations. If we examine the life of our beloved Prophet (PBUH), he spent his whole life according to the Quran and Sunnah. For every Muslim to succeed in life, they must follow the rules of Islam or Fiqh.
Now, narrating the Fiqh, an Islamic law system centered around the Qur’an and the Sunnah, or the Prophet Muhammad’s beliefs and actions. It derives from the Arabic word for “recognizing” and is the science of Islamic law. The corpus of Islamic law controls all areas of daily life, particularly marriage, inheritance, commerce, and religion.
Furthermore, if you are curious about how many types of Fiqh are there? No need for too much searching that flips your mind. Therefore, by reading this piece of information, you’ll get all you want to know about. Likewise, Fiqh is based on the interpretation of Islamic scholars and legal professionals of the Qur’an and Sunnah to derive rules applicable to current life.
Types of Fiqh
There are four major schools of Islamic jurisprudence, generally known as Fiqh: Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i, and Hanbali. These schools represent differing views of Islamic law and are practiced by various Muslim populations around the globe.
The Hanafi Fiqh is the oldest of the four Sunni Fiqhi schools. This is where the Fiqhi norms and matters were initially compiled. This school expanded the most in the Islamic world and was embraced by most Muslims. This Fiqh is credited to Imam Abu Hanifah and is consequently known as Hanafi.
The Maliki Fiqh is one of the four main schools of Fiqh, or religious law, within the Sunni religion. The Maliki school of thought was led by Imam Malik ibn Anas al-Asbahi, who served from 93H to 179H. Maliki madhhab is one of the main groups of Sunni Muslims, with members equivalent to Shafii madhhab but fewer than Hanafi madhhab.
The Fiqh Shafi’i is the third Fiqhi school of Islamic Jurisprudence given to Imam Shafi’i. On the other hand, Imam Shafi’i is a learner of Imam Malik, from whom he learned Fiqh Maliki and Hijazi views. On the other side, he studied with Imam Muhammad bin Hasan Shaibani and learned Fiqh Hanafi as well as Iraqi Fiqh. Apart from these two Fiqhs, he profited from other Fiqhi movements and Imams.
Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal is credited with founding the fourth Fiqhi school of Ahlus Sunnah. Fiqh Hanbali comes last in the historical sequence. Imam Ahmad’s temperament is more Muhaddith than Faqeeh, and this feature appears to dominate his Fiqh. His major master was Imam Shafi’i, who compiled all of the Fiqhi trends and interpretations. He focused his emphasis mostly on Hadith. So he became a brilliant Muahddith and created the vast compendium of Hadith ‘Al-Musnad.’
Principles of Fiqh Islam
For every Muslim, knowing how many types of Fiqh are there is compulsory. It is the mandatory duty of each Muslim to read the Holy verses of the Quran and conclude the message from them. Allah is worthy of all praise. So we adore Him for what He has from His Amazing Names and lofty and flawless Attributes. Moreover, Allah’s Assessment and Decree encompasses all in existence; and His Divinely Prescribed Laws include every field of rules. His evaluation concerns reward for good deeds and punishments for criminals.
Additionally, Islamic jurisprudence, known as Fiqh, plays an important role in shaping the daily lives of millions of Muslims worldwide. The evolution of Fiqh led to the establishment of different schools of thought, each with its unique interpretations and methodologies. Thus, we will explore the four main Sunni schools of Fiqh, Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi, and Hanbali, shedding light on their origins, key principles, and geographical prevalence.
Moreover, Shariah is the route or way of life that Allah has prescribed to lead Muslims in every element of life. It is a moral code that specifies how Muslims ought to live. The Qur’an, which is God’s direct word, and the Hadith, which are the Prophet Muhammad’s instructions and procedures, are the origins of Shariah. Hence, Shariah is the basis of Islamic law and applies in every aspect of life; Fiqh is the actual application of Shariah.
Sources of Fiqh
The jurisprudents refer to these four sources as the “four pieces of evidence” or the Cadillac ul-areas. They argue that the study of jurisprudence revolves around these four proofs. Now we need to clarify each source while also explaining the viewpoints of the other Islamic sects. There are four main sources of the Fiaqh given as;
1. The Quran:
There is no question that the Holy Qur’an is the primary source of Islamic rules and regulations. Of course, the Qur’an’s ayah or verses are not confined to rules and regulations. Hundreds of concerns have been introduced in the Qur’an, but a portion is stated to consist of roughly 500 ayahs.
2. The Sunnah:
The Sunnah refers to the Holy Prophet’s and Imams’ words, acts, and statements. It is obvious if the Holy Prophet verbally conveyed a specific law or if it is known how the Prophet conducted certain religious obligations.
Consensus refers to the Muslim ‘ulema’s united opinion on a certain topic. According to Shi’ite’s ulama, the consensus is binding because if all Muslims have the same position, it is proof that the opinion came from the Holy Prophet.
All Muslims can’t hold the same opinion on a subject if it originated with them. Hence, their agreement proves that the opinion originated with the Prophet or an Imam.
In the Shi’ite doctrine, the binding testimony of reason indicates that if reason has a clear rule in a given set of circumstances, it is binding since it is definitive and absolute.
The question here is whether Shari’ah rules are in the sphere of reason, and we shall address this question when someone analyzes the broad scope of the Fundamentals.
The four schools of Fiqh, namely Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i, and Hanbali, represent Islamic jurisprudence’s rich diversity and flexibility. While they may have differences in their approaches and interpretations, they all share a common foundation in the Quran and Hadith, striving to guide Muslims in their religious practices and ethical conduct. The coexistence of these schools is a testament to Islam’s ability to adapt and accommodate the needs of its diverse global community, fostering unity and understanding among its followers. To know more about Islamic laws and regulations and to lead life according to Islam, you can check eQuraneKareem, an online Quran academy. Similarly, if you connect with us, you’ll gain a lot of Islamic information with our experts via reading and reciting the Holy Book of Allah(SWT).